Wasps dislike light, so they build their nests in abandoned mice or vole holes and under house roofs. Their nests are made of chewed wood mixed with saliva. They spread this mass on a surface, and when it dries, it resembles paper. The queen usually finds a cavity to begin construction. Her nest grows, and the number of inhabitants increases rapidly. Nests are inhabited for only one year, usually by 1500-2000 individuals.
The temperature in the wasp’s nest is always higher than in the surrounding area. When the temperature rises to an undesirable level, wasps vibrate their wings to cool the air. If that is not enough, they collect water with their mouths and excrete it onto the nest walls. At the end of summer, only males and females are in the nest. They are the only ones to survive the winter and establish a new colony in the spring.
The wasp is a sophisticated creature, living in highly organized groups, having complex behavior, and using effective forms of communication. Humans benefit from wasps by them destroying pests, such as aphids, and being the main pollinator of all plant species. Adult wasps feed mostly on nectar. They love sweet ripe fruits but also sweets from the “man cuisine”, such as popsicles, ice creams and lemonades. The larvae feed on insects and the adults catch flies and caterpillars, which they grind into small pieces and carry to the nest as food for the larvae.
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Wasps themselves are non-aggressive; they only sting when irritated. Their venom consists of two basic components. The first is biogenic amines and amino acids which cause pain. The second component is an enzyme with neurotoxic effects. For a healthy person, this poison is not dangerous; a cold compress or aluminum acetate compress is sufficient aid.